The Second World War was considered an important success for chemical arms control, as none of the belligerents made significant use of chemical weapons.  Immediately after the war, arms control efforts, faced with their immense destructive power, focused primarily on nuclear weapons and chemical disarmament was not a priority.  Nevertheless, chemical warfare began to intensify with gas attacks during the civil war in Yemen and accusations of use during the Korean War.    These incidents, combined with the extensive use of chemical weapons in the Iran-Iraq war, have sparked renewed interest in chemical disarmament and strengthened the desire for disarmament.  eventually culminated in the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention, a total ban on the use, production and stockpiling of weapons, which entered into force in 1997.  In 1969, Britain presented to the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference (ENDC) a draft convention to ban biological warfare. The draft was rejected by the Soviet Union because the British proposal focused exclusively on biological weapons – not chemical and biological weapons, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions. The Soviet Union believed that only the fight against biological weapons could accelerate the chemical arms race. However, on November 25, 1969, President Nixon unilaterally renounced U.S.
biological weapons and began supporting a new multilateral treaty. Shortly thereafter, the Soviet Union changed its position and presented to the United Nations General Assembly on 5 August 1971 a joint project with the United States. Growing scientific and public awareness of the adverse effects of radioactive fallout on the environment and health led nuclear states to commit to negotiating an end to nuclear testing by the mid-1950s. The negotiations lasted for years when the Western nuclear powers tried to set up an on-site control system to guarantee the fight against secret underground nuclear tests. The Soviet Union, which feared that on-site inspections would reveal that its nuclear deterrent was much weaker than it publicly claimed, opposed field inspections. The Cuban crisis of October 1962 broke this deadlock when the two superpowers sought ways to ease tensions between them. Subsequently, the ban on underground nuclear testing was removed from the negotiations and an agreement was reached. The Antarctic Treaty is the earliest of the post-war arms control agreements. The Antarctic Treaty, which aims to exclude weapons instead of controlling or eliminating weapons already introduced, has proven to be an extremely successful arms control agreement. The treaty has internationalized and prevented the militarization of Antarctica and plans to continue its research with the commitment that the continent should not become a source of international discord.
The Antarctic Treaty served as a model for subsequent arms control agreements, such as the prohibition of nuclear weapons in outer space and the seabed and the various nuclear-weapon-free zones. . . .